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Since the Covid-19 pandemic, Bangkok's homeless population has been rising. With many of them elderly, advocates and experts now say raising the elderly pension is one solution. Meanwhile, imposing a wealth tax could help combat housing insecurity.

Ruea, 65, became homeless about losing her business during the pandemic.

When the pandemic hit, Ruea’s business and source of income were eradicated, pushing her into financial and housing insecurity.

Before COVID-19, she made a living independently selling homemade products on Khao San Road, and was able to support her needs. But the pandemic suddenly made this type of work impossible.

A Bangkok Post article found a 30% rise in Bangkok’s homeless population in 2022 compared to pre-pandemic rates.

Even though tourism is rising again in Bangkok, Ruea does not have enough money or resources to start her business again. She finds new places to sleep each night, sometimes staying with friends, other times alone. Ruea says that sometimes she feels vulnerable and unsafe when she is alone at night.

While a lot of people who struggled with housing during the pandemic are now housed, the need is still large. Welfare policies, gentrification and employment are factors that contribute to homelessness in Bangkok.

Pension for the elderly

Ruea is a 65-year-old woman. Like many other elderly people in Bangkok, her only source of income is a monthly 600 baht pension from the government. This is not enough income for her to afford housing. To help herself get by, she will line up to take one of the 500 free meals that the Bangkok Community Help Foundation hands out daily.

Under Thailand's current pension policy, the pension amount increases with age. Those aged 60–69 receive 600 baht. 70–79 year-olds get 700 baht. 80–89 year-olds get 800 baht, and those over 90 get 1,000 baht.

Friso Poldervaat, a founder of Bangkok Community Help, is one of the volunteers who hands out food every day.  He acknowledges that handouts are not a sustainable solution to the problem of homelessness and says that there need to be policy changes to increase housing security in Bangkok.

The most important change, according to Poldervaart, is increasing the pension for elderly to 3,000 baht per month.

Ruea said that if the pension rose to 3,000 baht per month, she would have enough money to support herself and pay for food and stable housing.

“This will mean a lot of elderly will not end up on the street. It’s where the government can make a big move,” Poldervaart said.

Poldervaart is not confident that the pension policy will be changed, however.  Although it was a campaign promise made during many elections, it has yet to be acted on.

Sustarum Thammaboosadee, an associate professor at Thammasat University, says that raising the monthly pension would not only benefit elderly recipients but also members of working class who provide for elderly family members.

“I believe that if we have the proper pension scheme, it will not only help us to avoid the problem of homelessness,” Sustarum said. “We have an ageing society and once you give pensions to elderly people … you also help working people.”

According to Sustarum, more than 70% of elderly in Thailand do not have financial independence and rely on their children after retirement.

Having studied the economic feasibility of raising the pension, he concludes that it is economically possible. 

Implementation largely depends on the government, however. The Move Forward Party had a campaign to raise the pension to 3,000 baht.  Sustarum believes if it had been allowed to form a government, the pension would already have been raised.

He adds that other welfare benefits could not only help solve homelessness and ease the burden carried by those looking after elderly family members but also help families to maintain their solidarity.

“Parents become sick and cannot work. Sometimes they become a burden but in Asia, we have to accept this.”

Precariat Workers

When Ruea was making a living selling products, she was a member of the precariat, an “informal” worker with no fixed income.

In addition to farmers and market workers, who are also included in this category, Sustarum pointed to a “new generation” of precariat workers who are self-employed in programming, design and other fields. More than 60% of today’s Thai working people reportedly fall in this category.

Such workers are more vulnerable to housing insecurity because their incomes are unpredictable. They may also have less access to welfare services because of the independent nature of their work. This proved to be true during the pandemic.

Once they lose their jobs, they have no access capital and no stable income. As noted by Sustarum. “They have no social network. They do not know who to ask for help.”

The growth of informal sector employment combined with rising inflation is making it difficult for many to afford housing in Bangkok.  Sustarum expects to see a greater homelessness in the outskirts of Bangkok, explaining that people are moving away from the city as a result of gentrification and rising costs in the city-center. 

To combat those factors and achieve greater housing security, he proposes that the government impose a wealth tax, since he believes it would allow Thailand to use more land and resources for affordable housing units. 

Without such reforms, Sustarum said, the price of housing, lack of social solidarity, low incomes, and lack of a welfare safety net will “push people into the streets.”

New generation

A European immigrant, Poldevart observes that “in Thailand, homeless people are stigmatized as lazy drug addicts.”

According to Sustarum, that attitude belongs to the older generation.  He sees it changing amongst today’s young adults. “Nowadays, if you ask this question to university students, they will say that it is not their fault. It is because of the social structure.”

Generational change can be a powerful tool for social reform.

Imposing a wealth tax and raising pensions are difficult but not impossible. Sustarum points to the electoral success of the Move Forward Party which began as “a movement of the people.” He also believes that public action is necessary.

“I think that protests and mass movements of civil society are still needed to make politics function … if you just wait for a political party to work for you, you’ll get nothing.”

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